The types of firearms used in the early colonies have received an appreciable amount of attention over the years, but until the recent excavations at Jamestown, there has been little attention placed on exactly what we know, don’t know and what we can speculate concerning them. Harold Peterson in his work “Arms and Armor in Colonial America” has long been touted as the pioneer of early colonial firearm studies and his work is used by many as the bible of early colonial firearm studies. Peterson’s work provides an excellent general framework for which the study of firearms in the early colonies can be placed within, but there still remains a need to delve deeper and more intricately into the study of each colony. This work is designed as a way to begin compiling all the known information on the firearms in use in Plymouth Colony from the years 1620 until the end of the colony in 1692. As a way of doing this, all the written court and primary document records regarding firearms in the colony, as many of the probate inventories as could be found and the archaeological data presently available were compiled, compared and contrasted. The result is a study that moves from the general trends that were identified by Peterson in 1969 to more specific findings of today that support some aspects of his work and modify others. It is hoped that this work can provide a model for the changes in firearm use and how these changes can be seen archaeologically that can be used by others studying firearms specifically from Plymouth Colony. I want to begin this work with a review of the types of firearms that have been identified within Plymouth Colony, then move on to discuss Peterson’s trends and what sorts of pieces the historical record indicates were used throughout the century and finally conclude with a comparison of the historical and archaeological record.